How does it work? Stochastic electrotransport uses a rotational electric field. This rotational electric field creates dispersion - a diffusion-like transport.

The illustration above compares stochastic electrotransport to electrophoresis (static electric field) and diffusion (no electric field).

Imagine you're a particle inside of a tissue. You are the magenta dot in the middle of the top left panel. To you, the microscopic structure in the tissue looks like a maze - represented by random black spots that you can't move through. Naturally, you want to move around and explore - this is called diffusion. But diffusion is a slow process and you don't get that far. An electric field could help you, but only in a particular direction - this causes stress to both you and the structure around you, which also feel the electric field. A rotational electric field, on the other hand, pushes you in all direction. This helps you spread out.

In the article, we show, using experiments and simulations, that this enhancement is quadratic with respect to the electromobility and the electric field and linear with respect to the rotation period, if the electric field is large enough. This means that 10X electric field (loosely equivalent to the voltage) would result in 100X transport. Likewise, 10X increase in electromobility (for a protein, that means higher deviation from neutral pH) would result in 100X transport. The dependence on rotation period is linear, so a 10X increase in rotation period (say, 1 minute to 10 minutes per rotation) would result in 10X transport. The moral of the story is, we want to apply the highest voltage possible and the lowest rotation rate possible that does not damage the tissue.