Application: Labeling

Another application for stochastic electrotransport is labeling (aka staining). Labeling is much more complex than clearing and can depend on many factors. It's also much harder to figure out the right conditions for labeling. But again, labeling, in abstract terms, is simply transporting electromobile particles into the tissue, where they will bind to their targets. And stochastic electrotransport can speed this process up.

There is another specialized device for this:

The key concept - rotating the tissue with respect to parallel electrodes - is the same. But this also has a nanoporous membrane to confine the probes (antibodies, for example) within a small volume next to the tissue.

With the right conditions, you can get labeling like this:

And like these: